Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 2nd World Congress on Public Health and Nutrition Rome, Italy.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Sandra Sikic

Andrija Stampar Teaching Institute of Public Health, Croatia

Keynote: South-East European Network For Food Safety And Quality Control (Seen-Fsqc)

Time : 09:30-10:15

OMICS International Public Health 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Sandra Sikic photo
Biography:

Sandra Sikic has her expertise in environmental health. Currently she works as a Deputy Director in the Andrija Stampar Teaching Institute of Public Health, Zagreb. She graduated in chemistry from the Faculty of Science in Zagreb and has a Ph.D. in natural sciences, biology. She completed one-year specialist training at the Business Academy Experta in Zagreb and gained the title Health Manager. She is a lecturer in the field of public health and environmental health at the University of Applied Health Sciences. She attended a number of training and professional education courses both in Croatia and European Union. She’s the author of numerous  professional and scientific papers. Further professional interest is in toxicology, water and food safety as well as other environmental factors.

Recent Publications:

  1. Radasevic H, Sostar Z, Jelusic S, Portolan Pajic I, Mestric A, Leppée (2015) The effect of physical activity intensity on body mass index and body fat percentage. Eur J Public Health 25 (3):459-460
  2. Štimac D., Polić-Vižintin M., Škes M., Cattunar A., Cerović R., Stojanović D. (2010) Utilization of cardiovascular drugs in Zagreb 2001-2005. Acta Cardiol 65(2): 193-201.
  3. Polić Vižintin M, Badanjak A, Tripković I, Štimac D, Smirčić Duvnjak L. Diabetes Mellitus  as Public Health Priority in Zagreb –Croatia ( 2001-2009) Diabetes 61
  4. Croatian Institute of Public Health (2015) Croatian health statistics yearbook
  5. Andrija Stampar Teaching Institute of Public Health (2015) Health service yearbook, City of Zagreb

Abstract:

A balanced diet and safe foods are one of the key elements of health. High energy intake and lack of physical activity result in increase of overweight and obesity, which cause a number of health problems. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of death in the European Region. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death in Croatia with the rate of 47% and 45, 5 % in the City of Zagreb in 2015. NCDs are becoming a major health, economic and social issue. On the other hand, food production is one of the most important industries in the world. Advantages of globalization are obvious, but there is a need for risk management and standardization to provide safe and quality food products. With the aim of strengthening the role of public health institutions and importance of food safety in different South-Eastern European regions, Andrija Stampar Teaching Institute of Public Health, Zagreb, Croatia initiated the foundation of South-East European Network for Food Safety and Quality Control (SEEN-FSQC). The countries in South-East Europe were politically and economically connected in the past and food safety was regulated by the same directives. Nowadays, these countries are politically independent and they belong to different political and economic associations (EU, CEFTA). Applied Food Safety Directives might be different in each country; therefore SEEN-FSQC is initiating a standardization of public health activities and food control in South-East region of Europe. SEEN-FSQC ensures formation of an expert group for the purpose of sharing knowledge, training and providing help to decision-makers, as well as education and international co-operation. Network members are the most appreciated institutions and scientific laboratories, including public health institutions, faculties that work in food production process in any way and leading private laboratories from South-East Europe.

OMICS International Public Health 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Luigi Montano photo
Biography:

Luigi Montano, UroAndrologist, has his expertise in Environmental Pathology and his interest is focused on the reproductive health in high environmental risk areas. In fact, he is the creator and Coordinator of EcoFoodFertility project a multicenter, multidisciplinary research connecting human life-style and dietary habits to the environmental consequences of exposure to pollutants with the aim of: 1. Developing a better understanding of the environmental impact of pollutants on healthy humans in areas with different environmental impacts; 2. Use human semen as an early and sensitive biomarker of environmental exposure to pollutants; 3. Identify dietary approaches and/or detoxifying therapy in order to improve the human semen quality in healthy men who living in polluted areas. The project is starting up in several environmental risk areas of Italy and draw up a new model of research for Environmental Impact Assessment and for Primary Prevention of Risk Areas.

Recent Publications

  1. Le Moal J. Rolland M, Goria S, Wagner V, De Crouy-Chanel P, Rigou A, De Mouzon J, Royère D. 2014. Semen quality trends in French regions are consistent with a global change in environmental exposure. Reproduction, 147(4):567-74.
  2. L.Montano, L. Iannuzzi, J. Rubes, C. Avolio, C. Pistos, A. Gatti, S. Raimondo, T.Notari. 2014. EcoFoodFertility – Environmental and food impact assessment on male reproductive function. Andrology 2(Suppl.2):69, 2014.
  3. L. Montano, T. Notari, S.Raimondo, P.Bergamo, M.Rossi, D.Luongo, MG Volpe, L. Iannuzzi. 2015.Evaluation of Environmental Impact on Sperm DNA integrity by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion Test ad p53 Elisa: Preliminary data.(EcoFoodFertility Project).Reprod Toxicol.,Vol. 56: 20,2
  4. Bergamo P, Volpe MG, Lorenzetti S, Mantovani A, Notari T, Cocca E, Cerullo S, Di Stasio M, Cerino P, Montano L. 2016. Human semen as an early, sensitive biomarker of highly polluted living environment in healthy men: a pilot biomonitoring study on trace elements in blood and semen and their relationship with sperm quality and RedOx status. Reprod Toxicol., 66:1-9.
  5. Vecoli C, Montano L, Andreassi MG. 2016. Environmental pollutants: genetic damage and epigenetic changes in male germ cells. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 23(23):23339-48. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-7728-4

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Several studies have shown a dramatic reduction of male fertility in many industrialized countries and infertility is becoming a top priority for the public health. A pilot biomonitoring study of EcoFoodFertility Project a multicenter, multidisciplinary research connecting human life-style and dietary habits to the environmental consequences of exposure to pollutants, was conducted in Campania region (Italy) on a cohort of clinically healthy male residents in “Land of Fires” (high environmental impact- HEI) compared with a similar cohort living in the rural area of the same Region, Alto-MedioSele (low environmental impact–LEI).
Methodology and Theoretical Orientation: 110 healthy males were recruited from HEI and LEI areas (age 28±5years). Enrollment criteria were no smoking, no habitual alcohol drinking and no occupational exposure. In both semen and blood we analyzed 22 trace elements by optical emission spectrometry and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by spectrophotometry. In a randomly subset of 20 subjects from each group, we analyzed sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion test and antioxidant enzyme activities in the semen (Glutathione reductase, Glutathione peroxidase) by spectrophotometry.

Findings: HEI subjects showed significantly higher values (p <0.05) for Al, Mn, Cr, Mg, Li, Co, Ca in blood, as well as for Cr, Cu and Zn in the semen, while Fe was lower in the semen of HEI-group (p<0.05). Immotile sperms and the DFI were both higher (p<0.026 and p<0.01, respectively) in HEI-group. TAC in blood showed no differences, while TAC, GSR and GpX in the seminal plasma were significantly lower in the HEI-group (p<0.05).The percentage of immotile sperms showed significant (p <0.005) inverse correlations with both TAC and GSH in semen.
Conclusion & Significance: These results suggest sperm motility, DFI, antioxidant capacity, chemical element pattern are influenced by high environmental pressure and human semen could be used as an early and reliable tool of environmental impact assessment on human health, useful for innovative prevention programs and health surveillance in risk areas.

Keynote Forum

John-Jules Ch Meyer

Utrecht University, Netherlands

Keynote: Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare

Time : 11:20-12:05

OMICS International Public Health 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker John-Jules Ch Meyer photo
Biography:

John-Jules Ch. Meyer studied Mathematics with Computer Science and Digital Signal Processing at Leyden University. He obtained his Ph.D. from the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam on a subject in theoretical computer science. Since 1993 he has been a full professor of computer science, and artificial intelligence in particular, at Utrecht University. At the moment he is heading the Artificial Intelligence Division within the Department of Information and Computing Sciences and is programme leader of the AI Master of the UU. Currently he is also the CSO of the Alan Turing Institute Almere, which specializes in multi-disciplinary research for the health sciences, and the CEO of Companion Diagnostics ltd. as a part of Emotional Brain ltd. He has over 500 peer-reviewed publications in international journals and conference proceedings. In 2005 he was appointed as a Fellow of the European Coordinating Committee for Artificial Intelligence.

Recent Publications

  1. D. Höhle, C.R.C. Pieterman, G.D. Valk, A.R. Hermus, H.P.F. Koppeschaar, J.-J. Ch. Meyer & R.P.J. de Lange, Classifying the Decision To Perform Surgery in MEN1 Cancer Patients Using Decision Trees, in Proc. CBMS 2011 (the 24th Int. Symp. on Computer-Based Medical Systems) & HEALTHGRID 2011, (T. Solomonides, ed.), Bristol, 2011, 6 p.
  2. I. Čače, J.-J. Ch. Meyer, C.R.C. Pieterman, & G.D. Valk, Encapsulated Models for Reasoning and Decision Support, in: INFORMATIK 2013: Informatik angepasst an Mensch, Organisation und Umwelt (Matthias Horbach, ed.), 16-20 September 2013, Koblenz, GI-Edition - Lecture Notes in Informatics (LNI), P-220, Bonner Köllen Verlag, 2013, pp. 1821.
  3. I. Čače and J.-J. Ch. Meyer, Mechanistic Models for Healthcare: A Review of Current Practice and Possibilities, in: Proc. E-Health 2014 (part of the 
Multi Conf. on Computer Science and Information Systems 2014 – MCCSIS 2014) (P. Kommers, P. Isaías, C. Gauzente, M. Baptista Nunes, G. Chao Peng & M. Macedo, eds.), Lisbon, Portugal, IADIS Press, 2014, pp. 394-398.
  4. J.-J. Ch. Meyer, Agent Technology, in: Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Engineering, Vol. 1 (B.W. Wah, ed.), Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, 2009, pp. 42-49.
  5. M. Peeters, K. van den Bosch, J.-J. Ch. Meyer & M. Neerincx, Agent-Based Personalisation and User Modeling for Personalised Educational Games, in: ACM UMAP '16: Proc. of the 2016 Conference on User Modeling Adaptation and Personalization (J. Vassileva, J. Blustein, L. Aroyo & S. D’Mello, eds.), Halifax, NS, Canada, July 13 - 17, 2016, pp. 303-304.

 

Abstract:

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is becoming more and more ubiquitous, also witness the ‘hype’ of the self-driving car the call for a ban on the use of smart killer robots in warfare, and the fear of AI by well-known persons, including some excellent scientists like Stephen Hawking, "The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race". But AI also invades health care and related fields ever more. And I believe this is a good thing. Primarily inspired by work we have done at the Alan Turing Institute Almere (ATIA), in this invited talk I’ll review a number of applications of AI in health care and medicine. I’ll talk about advanced diagnostic techniques based on machine learning, modeling techniques and also artificial companions to assist with the care of patients in a hospital or home setting. These companions are able to monitor the behavior of patients, help them remind of taking medication, but also can have conversations with them giving them the feeling that they are cared for. This is important in times where health care is economized upon like we face in The Netherlands. Moreover, so-called serious games can be used to train health care professionals. In Utrecht we have worked on the personalization of this type of games involving automatic adaptation to knowledge and skills of the user/trainee.

  • Public Health and Epidemiology | Community Nutrition | Disease Prevention | Food security
Speaker

Chair

Luigi Montano

ASL Salerno, Italy

Speaker

Co-Chair

Sandra Sikic

Andrija Stampar Teaching Institute of Public Health, Croatia

Speaker
Biography:

Lyndall Warton is a Masters by Research student at the Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University. Following a ten year career as a registered nurse, Lyndall qualified as a librarian working in a variety of roles in libraries, research support and as a database manager. Her interest in health research stems from working in disability services, aged care, public health and working in the hospital environment with people with chronic medical conditions. Lyndall also worked as a health liaison librarian and is a volunteer member of the Top End Health Service Health Literacy Committee. She was also a sub-editor for the Health Libraries Australia ‘News’ and ‘Alerts’ publications.

Recent Publications

  1. Warton, L. (2014). APProved and APPropriate Health Apps. HLA News.
  2. CDU Library Liaison Team (2014). The Tyranny of Distance.  Incite, 35(8), 17.
  3. Ford, L., Prior, J., Coat, B. & Warton, L. (2014). The Incorporating Indigenous Knowledge LibGuide: Charles Darwin University Embedding Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Knowledge, Culture and Language. Australian Academic and Research Libraries, 45(2), 111-120.

 

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: The direct link between childhood obesity and poor nutrition is well documented. Research provides evidence that parents can have a significant influence on children’s eating patterns. It is still unclear how and at what level family involvement yields the largest impact on children’s behaviors. The purpose of this systematic review is to conduct a comprehensive analysis of school-based nutrition education studies undertaken with low-income populations to identify effective strategies to engage parents in school-based nutrition education interventions.
Method: In September and October 2016, relevant databases were systematically searched and 4672 references were retrieved. Titles and abstracts have been scanned independently by three review authors. Full-text copies of 223 of those articles deemed eligible for further review have been retrieved for closer examination. The diagram shows the number of articles identified in each step so far. Articles were included if: participants included school children aged 5 to 12 years old; were aimed at obesity prevention; had family or parent involvement, and the intervention included any health promotion activity including nutrition education or nutrition promotion programs by itself or combined with other interventions. Physical activity interventions without a nutrition component were excluded. Ninety-two reviews were also identified and their reference lists examined to identify relevant studies that may not have been captured in the initial search. Data will be extracted by one review author and verified by a second review author. Subgroup analysis will include: program duration; the degree of parental involvement; study design; theory base; age of the children; and obesity levels.
Significance: The systematic review will provide information on effective ways to engage parents in school-based nutrition education interventions to encourage healthful eating and drinking behaviors in low-income populations. This evidence may help to inform policy and practice to design effective obesity prevention initiatives.

Speaker
Biography:

Eleni-Anna Karali is a research associate in private dermatological Polyclinic SKIN–BODY. She has also worked as Medical Officer of skin laser at private polyclinics, oversight and application of Laser treatments. In 2012, she has successfully acquiesced a certificate specialty in Dermatology-Venereology. She is a graduate of National School of Public Health and qualified hygienist.

Abstract:

Homocysteine level in the blood plasma is a risk factor and predictor of Alzheimer’s Disease and Heart Disease. Homocysteine is a specific type of amino acid that’s created in the body during metabolic processes, as opposed to consumed in food. It’s produced in the body as a byproduel of methylation, the process of producing an essential protein called methionine. In healthy people, homocysteine is transformed into a benign product that keeps levels maintained, but when homocysteine isn’t properly metabolized it builds up inside the body and acts similarly to a toxin. This causes inflammation to rise and creates more byproducts that cause changes in cardio vascular neurological and endocrine systems. There are natural and pharmacological treatments for those who suffer of high homocysteine levels. Homocysteine high levels are necessary to be controlled for a better life.

Turkan Kopac

Bulent Ecevit University, Turkey

Title: Adsorption of food dyes
Speaker
Biography:

Turkan Kopac received her B.Sc and M.Sc degrees in Chemical Engineering from the Middle East Technical University, and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey. She has her expertise in adsorption, adsorbent development/characterization, nanostructures, protein adsorption/surface interactions with nanomaterials, dye adsorption, activated carbon from coal, environmental applications, MOF structures, hydrogen storage, metan, carbondioxide absorption.

Recent Publications

  1. Piccin JS.,  Vieira MLG.,  Gonçalves JO,  Dotto GL, Pinto, LAA (2009) Adsorption of FD&C Red No. 40 by chitosan: Isotherms analysis.  Journal of Food Engineeering 95:  16-20.
  2. Yener J, Kopac T, Dogu G, Dogu T (2006) Batch adsorber rate analysis of Methylene Blue on Amberlite and Clinoptilolite. Separation Science and Technology 41:1857-1879.
  3. Yener J, Kopac T, Dogu G, Dogu T (2006) Adsorption of Basic Yellow 28 dye from aqueous solutions with  Clinoptilolite and Amberlite XAD-4. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 294:255-264.
  4. Yener J, Kopac T, Dogu G, Dogu T (2008) Dynamic analysis of sorption of Methylene Blue dye on granular and powdered activated carbon. Chemical Engineering Journal  144:400-406.
  5. Kopac T., Sulu E., Toprak A (2016) Effect of KOH treatment on bituminous coal for the effective removal of Basic Blue 41 dye from aqueous solutions. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57: 29007-29018.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Food dye is a member of food additive used for the purpose of changing the color of food so as to attract the consumers. Food dyes are widely used as colorants in food, drug and cosmetic industries, to produce many types of foods including drinks, juices, sweets, cosmetics and drugs. Types of food dyes can be classified as: natural colors, synthetic colors, and lakes and dyes. Dyes that contain an azo-structure can be reduced to aromatic amines by the intestinal microflora are reported to be carcinogenic. Such kind of dyes has also been reported to cause hyperactivity and urticaria in children, asthma, purpura and eczema. The additives used to change the color are required to be pre-approved by various organizations around the world and listed in the regulations as color additives before they can be used in food, drugs, cosmetics, and medical devices. Most countries have their own regulations and list of food colors that can be used in various applications. Natural dyes are unstable and easily undergo degradation during the food processing. The disposal of effluents containing dyes to the environment leads to the coloration, limitation of the reoxygenation capacity of water, decrease in photosynthetic activities in the aquatic system as a result of sunlight  penetration decrease, chronic and acute toxicities. The purpose of this study is to describe the studies reported in the literature on the adsorptive removal of food dyes from aqueous solutions.

Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Numerous conventional treatment techniques including precipitation, coagulation, oxidation membrane filtration, photodegradation and adsorption have been utilized for the removal of dyes from wastewaters. Particularly, adsorption process is considered to be an effective and economical procedure to remove dyes from industrial effluents. It can be applied in removing dyestuffs from industrial wastewaters.

Findings: The development of adsorbents from various sources, their comparison in terms of operating conditions and their adsorption capacities are reported. In the presentation, adsorption of food dyes from aqueous solutions, specific adsorbents developed, optimum conditions, adsorption capacities, isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamic analysis of adsorption are reviewed.

Conclusion & Significance: Medium pH, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, temperature are the important factors that influence the adsorption of dyes.

Speaker
Biography:

Augustina Ewere Ayogbe completed her Masters of Science from the Bern University of applied sciences Switzerland specializing in Food, Nutrition and Health. She is a registered Dietitian and Nutritionist with the Dietitians Association of Nigeria. Currently, she is a research assistant in Bern University of Applied Sciences. She has also worked as a Head dietitian at Reddington Multi – specialist hospital Lagos Nigeria.

Abstract:

Gestational diabetes mellitus is a condition that affects many pregnancies and ethnicity appears to be a risk factor. Data indicate that approximately 18% of the Tamil population is diagnosed with gestational diabetes, while the general prevalence worldwide is between 5 and 10%. Today, approximately 50,000 of Tamils live in Switzerland. To date there is no official available tool that considers the eating and physical habit of the migrant Tamil population living in Switzerland, while offering a quick overview of gestational diabetes and standard dietetics management procedures. The NutriGeD project led by Bern University of Applied Sciences in Switzerland aimed at closing the gap. A series of tools were developed to ease the consultation process, increase transcultural competence, sensitize nutritionists, dietitians, and other healthcare professionals to the special needs to Tamil population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the implementation potential of this dietetic transcultural before its wide scale launch in Swiss hospitals, clinics and private practices.

Method: A survey was developed online and the final version was distributed to 50 recruited healthcare professionals (dietitians, diabetic experts, medical doctors, midwives and nurses) from the German speaking region of Switzerland (response rate was approximately 32%). The transcultural tool was sent to participants together with the link to the online survey to evaluate the implementation potential of the tool and provide feed -back. Results: Data analysis is undergoing and so far, among 36 out of the 50 respondents, 97% are convinced of transcultural tool’s potential and 94 % recommend its availability in healthcare settings.

Conclusion: The study is still on going and more results are expected. Thus, far, the results are pointing towards a general interest for and approval of the tool among Swiss healthcare practitioners. If results are confirmed, this tool would offer a novel approach for optimized transcultural dietetics counseling and might be part of a promising strategy to be used in clinical practice. The developed materials will be made available for clinical visits, in hospital or private and further folders will be developed for other migrant groups following a similar approach.

  • Symposium
Location: Appia 1+2

Session Introduction

Francesco Landi

Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Italy

Title: Healthy diet and physical activity are correlated with Lower Cholesterol Levels: results from the Mese Del Cuore 2016 Survey

Time : 13:50-14:35

Speaker
Biography:

Francesco Landi is an Associate Professor of Internal Medicine (Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, Italy). He has the Ph.D. in Preventive Medicine. Main research interests are in geriatric assessment, nutritional problems, sarcopenia, health services for older and geriatric epidemiology. Landi serves on the Scientific Committee of Italian Geriatric Society, on the Editorial Board of international geriatric journals, and as a peer reviewer for medical journals. He has acted as the Principal Investigator in many multicenter national and international trials. Landi has over 250 peer-reviewed original papers, many of which are in the area of frailty and epidemiology.

Recent Publications

  1. Vetrano DL (2013). Prevalence of the seven cardiovascular health metrics in a Mediterranean country: results from a cross-sectional study. Eur J Public Health 23:858-62.
  2. Landi F (2014). Calf circumference, frailty and physical performance among older adults living in the community. Clin Nutr 33:539-44.
  3. Cesari M (2009). C-reactive protein and lipid parameters in older persons aged 80 years and older. J Nutr Health Aging 13:587-93.
  4. Landi F (2008). Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and mortality in frail, community-living elderly. Gerontology 54:71-8.
  5. Landi F (2007). HDL-cholesterol and physical performance: results from the ageing and longevity study in the sirente geographic area (ilSIRENTE Study). Age Ageing 36:514-20.

 

Abstract:

Aim: Primary prevention is essential for reaching cardiovascular (CV) health. This is defined by seven ideal health metrics identified by the American Heart Association, with the cholesterol level as one of the major domains. The aims of the present study are to assess the prevalence of high cholesterol level and to evaluate how a healthy diet and physical activity correlates with cholesterol within a large unselected population.

Methods: All the 16.307 consecutive individuals (mean age 57.0±11.1 years; 48.4% women) who agreed to participate the Italian national campaign (Mese del Cuore, 2016) of CV prevention were included. The participants completed an online self-reported questionnaire created in the context of a CV health educational platform (www.viaggioalcuoredelproblema.it). The following health metrics have been considered: never/former smoker, regular physical activity (at least two hours per week), body mass index lower than 25.0 Kg/m2, healthy diet (consumption of at least three portions of fruit and/or vegetables per day), cholesterol lower than 200mg/dl, diabetes absence and a blood pressure lower than 120/80mmHg.

Results: Participants presented, on average, 4.1±1.3 of the seven ideal CV health metrics (4.3±1.3 and 3.9±1.3 in women and men, respectively, p<0.001). Finally, in Figure 1 the synergistic effect of a healthy diet and physical activity on cholesterol levels is shown.

Conclusion: Prevalence of the seven Cardiovascular health metrics was low in our population, in particular the uncontrolled cholesterol level. Social initiatives and awareness policies from health care agencies to improve the adherence to a healthy diet and physical activity programs are mandatory to promote CV health.

Speaker
Biography:

Emanuele Marzetti is a board certified Geriatrician and Clinical Assistant Professor in Geriatrics at the Teaching Hospital "Agostino Gemelli" (Rome, Italy). He has a Ph.D. degree in Geriatric Preventive Medicine. His research focuses on frailty and disability in older people. He has authored and co-authored over 150 scientific publications and serves as associate editor and editorial board member for several biomedical.

Recent Publications

  1. Vetrano DL (2013). Prevalence of the seven cardiovascular health metrics in a Mediterranean country: results from a cross-sectional study. Eur J Public Health 23:858-62.
  2. Marzetti E (2016). Integrated control of brown adipose tissue. Heart Metab 69:9-14.
  3. Cesari M (2009). C-reactive protein and lipid parameters in older persons aged 80 years and older. J Nutr Health Aging 13:587-93.
  4. Landi F (2008). Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and mortality in frail, community-living elderly. Gerontology 54:71-8.
  5. Marzetti E (2016).  Brand New Medicine for an Older Society. J Am Med Dir Assoc 17:558-9.

Abstract:

Aim: Primary prevention is essential for reaching cardiovascular (CV) health. This is defined by seven ideal health metrics identified by the American Heart Association. The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence and the distribution of these seven ideal CV health metrics within an unselected population.

Methods: All the 1206 consecutive individuals (mean age 58.8±14.1 years; 55.6% women) who agreed to be “face-to-face” screened at the outpatient clinic of Catholic University of Rome, within the context of a national campaign (Mese del Cuore, 2016) of CV prevention, were included (www.viaggioalcuoredelproblema.it). The following health metrics have been considered as an ideal: never/former smoker, regular physical activity (at least two hours per week), body mass index lower than 25.0 Kg/m2, healthy diet (consumption of at least three portions of fruit and/or vegetables per day), cholesterol lower than 200mg/dl, diabetes absence and a blood pressure lower than 120/80mmHg.

Results: Participants presented, on average, 4.1±1.3 ideal CV health metrics (4.3±1.3 and 3.9±1.3 in women and men, respectively, p<0.001). Only 37.3% covered more than five ideal CV health metrics and 10.0% covered less than three ideal health metrics. Only 4.3% of the study population met all the seven ideal metrics. In particular, only 36.9% (431 subjects) presented normal cholesterol. The mean cholesterol levels were 206.7 mg/dl and 202.9 mg/dl in women and men, respectively (p=0.08). Interestingly, among those who thought to have normal cholesterol (n=492), 50% (n=246) had a cholesterol level more than 200mg/dl. Similarly, among those who did not know their cholesterol level (n=143), 55% (n=79) had an abnormal value. Finally, 451 subjects (37.4%) had not measured the cholesterol during the last year. Among these subjects, the mean cholesterol level was 203.5±32.3 mg/dl. The figure shows the percentages of normal and higher cholesterol among subjects who had not previously measured the cholesterol.

Conclusion: Prevalence of the seven CV health metrics was low in our population, in particular the uncontrolled cholesterol level. Social initiatives and awareness policies from health care agencies are mandated to promote CV health.