Day 3 :
Sultan Qaboos University, Jordan
Keynote: Sedentary behavior and nutritional patterns in relationship with body fat, and BMI among Omani teens
Time : 09:00-09:35
Kashef Zayed has earned his PhD from Bucharest University in 1996. He worked at the University of Jordan and Al-Salt College for Teachers in Jordan before he joined Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in 1990. He served as a head of the Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Education, SQU through 2007 to 2011. He is an international affiliate of American Psychological Association (APA) and International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP). He published more than 30 papers in reputed journals and in international conferences proceedings. Currently, he is an Associate Professor at the Department of Physical Education, SQU.
rnSedentary behavior and unhealthy nutritional patterns represent main risk factors of the prevalence of overweight, diabetes type-2 and other non-communicable diseases in modern human societies. Sedentary behavior refers to any kind of waking physical activity such as sitting or lying down, TV viewing, computer work, playing digital games, and reading that lead to the expenditure approximately around 1.5 Metabolic Equivalents of Task (MET) per hour. Recent research indicated that people spend in sedentary behavior more than half of their time during waking. In this study, we aimed to explore the prevalence of overweight, body fat and explore the nature of relationship between them and unhealthy nutritional patterns and lack of physical activity among adolescents in Oman. To achieve the goals of this study, Arab Teenage Lifestyle Questionnaire (ATLS) which assesses physical activity, sedentary behavior and nutritional patterns has been administered on a sample consisted of (855) adolescents (gender: 413 males and 442 females; ages: m =17.2; sd. 1.3). Body mass index, waist circumference and body fat were also measured using body composition analyzer device (TANITA). The results revealed that 23.8% of the participants were overweight (including obesity), while 20.7% of them where underweight. The results also explored that there were a link between sedentary behavior, overweight and body fat. Descriptive statistics showed that there were a prevalence of unhealthy nutritional patterns among the teens which may lead to increase the risk factors of acquiring type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factors. These results are alarming and require a need to work on attitudes/behavioral modification through raising the nutritional awareness among teens and their families, as well as through the intensification of interest in school physical education and sports activities.rn
Kaohsiung Medicine University, Taiwan
Keynote: Intake of Phthalate-tainted foods and microalbuminuria in children: The 2011 Taiwan food scandal
Time : 09:35-10:10
Dr. Ming-Tsang Wu has completed his MD from Chung Shan Medical University in Taiwan and PhD from Harvard School of Public Health in the USA. He is a full professor in the Department of Public Health and the Director in Research Center for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medicine University, Taiwan. His major research interest is on the interactive effects of environmental and occupational exposures, genetic factors, and biomarkers on the health outcomes.
A major threat to public health involving phthalate-tainted foodstuffs occurred in Taiwan in 2011. Phthalates, mainly di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), were intentionally added to several categories of food commonly consumed by children. We investigated the relationship between intake of the phthalate-tainted foods and renal function in children. Children aged ≤ 10 years with possible phthalate exposure were enrolled between August 2012 and January 2013. Questionnaires were used to collect details of exposure to phthalate-tainted foodstuffs, and blood and urine samples were collected for clinical biochemical workups. The clinical biomarkers of renal injury, including urinary microalbumin, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), and β2-microglobulin, were measured. Exposure was categorized based on recommended tolerable daily intake level defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (0.02 mg/kg/day) and the European Food Safety Authority (0.05 mg/kg/day). We analyzed intake and renal function of 184 children whose intake of DEHP-tainted foods was known. Higher exposure to DEHP-tainted foods was significantly associated with increased risk for microalbuminuria (> 3.5 mg/mmol creatinine) (P = 0.02). Children in the high exposure group (daily DEHP intake (DDI) > 0.05 mg/kg/day) had 10.395 times the risk of microalbuminuria than the low exposure group (DDI ≤ 0.02 and > 0 mg/kg/day) and no exposure groups (95% CI = 1.096-98.580, P = 0.04) combined after adjustment. We conclude intake of DEHP from phthalate-tainted foods is a potential risk factor for microalbuminuria, a marker of glomerular injury in children. In this talk, I will also present the course of this incident and government response and management of the crisis.
- Nutrition and Health Polices
Nutritional Deficiencies and Malnutrition
Nutrition and Biological Systems
Nutrition and Systematic Disorders
Sultan Qaboos University, Jordan
Kaohsiung Medicine University, Taiwan
Postgraduate Center for Family and Community Medicine, Saudi Arabia
Rajaa Al-Raddadi has an MD degree then completed her Board certification in Community Medicine in 2004 from Postgraduate center for family and Community Medicine, Diploma in clinical research from institute of clinical research, UK and Master in Medical Education from King Saud bin Abdulaziz University, Jeddah. She is a staff member at Postgraduate center for family and community Medicine, Vice president for the Saudi Epidemiology Association, and board member in Evidence Based Health Care Society. She is a member in the scientific committee for community medicine at Saudi Commission for Health specialty. She has published 30 papers in several journals and has been serving as a reviewer in six journals. She participated in the development of five Saudi clinical practice guidelines.
Prevention of osteoporosis begins in childhood and adolescence as 90 to 95% of an adult’s bone mineral being achieved by the end of adolescence. Several risk factors influence bone health including low consumption of dairy products, physical inactivity, low level of sun exposure, smoking, excessive consumption of soft drinks and caffeine and vitamin D deficiency. Targeting modifiable behaviors have an important effect for the attainment of adequate peak bone mass and future fracture risk. The objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence of the behaviors affecting bone health and vitamin D status and to identify the factors associated with Vitamin D deficiency amongst Saudi adolescent females. Methodology: A cross-sectional analytic study conducted in the secondary schools in Jeddah City on a randomly selected 412 adolescent females. A predesigned questionnaire was used for data collection, Anthropometric measurement were measured and blood sample was also collected to measure vitamin D and iPTH. Chi square and ANOVA were used to identify the association between vitamin D status and the independent variables. Results: The mean (SD) of age was 17.2 (1.2). Reported consumption of two or more serving of dairy products per day was 11.2%. About 70% drink soft drink regularly, 13.9% perform the recommended exercise per week and 10% expose to sun. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 67.5% .There were no significant association between sociodemographic characteristics, dairy products, coffee, tea intake, anthropometric measurements and calcium and vitamin D supplementation and vitamin D status. Only iPTH was significantly associated with vitamin D status. The mean iPTH was significantly higher among adolescents with vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion: This study indicates that Saudi female adolescents at significant risk of developing osteoporosis based on the prevalence of risky behaviors include low consumption of dairy products, high consumption of soft drink, low exercise level, low sun exposure and high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency.
The State University of Zanzibar, Tanzania
Hassan Rashid Ali is affiliated from The State University of Zanzibar, Tanzania
Diuron, [N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-urea] is a photosystem II (PSII) herbicide derived from urea. It is considered a priority hazardous substance by the European Commission. It is widely used as one among the antifouling paints to the boats and ships to replace Tributyltin (TBT). The antifouling paints are considered as one among the threats facing coastal resources including coral reefs in recent decades. In our previous study we measured concentration of Diuron up to 285 ng/L in coastal water of Johor Port, Malaysia. This study examined the effect of Diuron on fatty acids composition of Lates Calcarifer. The 96 h-LC50’s of Diuron for acute exposure was determined and found to be 1.627±0.181 mg/L. Then sub-lethal exposure (21 days) was done for Lates Calcarifer. The results showed that, non treated samples (fresh and control) were not significant different (P>0.05) and dominated by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) followed by Saturated Fatty Acids (SAFA) and then Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA). The trends for treated samples (50, 30 and 10% of LC50 values) were significant different (P<0.05), with species suffered more as the dose of Diuron increased. The findings of this study demonstrate that Diuron is toxic and may affect the fatty acids composition of Lates Calcarifer even if exposed at the low levels which are normally considered safe to marine species.
National Institute of Technology, Brazil
Dr. Carla Guimaraes has a bachelor's degree in Sports and Physical Education, a Masters in Biosciences of Physical Activity, and a Ph.D. in Production Engineering at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (2002). She is a Senior Researcher at National Institute of Technology. She is now coordinating three projects involving Interactive 3D digital platforms for formation applied to caregivers, combat sports and Paralympics sports. Her areas of professional experience are in Human Factors and Ergonomics, 1D and 3D Anthropometry, Occupational biomechanics, Sports Biomechanics, Assistive Technology, Digital Human Modeling and Simulation.
The percentage of people over 60 years increased from 8.6% in 2000 to 10.8% at Brazilian population in 2010. In 78 cities of Brazil this portion of citizens already represents 20% of the total population. These health and social issues have increased concern of government health institutions regarding the care services and products development for this population in order to improve quality life and security. The purpose of this paper is to present a 3D digital interactive environment to improve education and training of caregivers in order to interact with them as a game to improve the daily care services tasks. The 3D interactive platform framework involved: first step - captured caregivers selected motions using 17 inertial sensors from XSENS Technology and Yei Technology inertial sensors; second step- 3D modeling and simulation - motion data are incorporated to virtual environment using biomechanical models in a game platform; third step - reports and descriptors. The conclusion are: the digital platform will assure more democratic visualization and improve available information for the stakeholders involved, as caregivers, designers, architects, health personnel's in the benefit of senior population The platform will also incorporate 1D anthropometric measurements database of the caregivers and old adults that can help designers and health care's personnel to improve design and care services.
Aligarh Muslim University, India
Title: Prevalence of overweight and obesity and their correlates- A cross sectional study among medical students of India
Time : 11:45-12:10
After completing Doctor of Medicine course in Community Medicine at the prestigious Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India in 1998, he joined the faculty in the Deptt. of Community Medicine, J.N. Medical College in 1999. He is teaching undergraduate and postgraduate medical students and also involved in training of medical interns in rural health programmes. He is also involved in the research activities directed towards micronutrient deficiencies, HIV/AIDS, disaster management and environmental health issues. He has got 70 papers published in the reputed journals of which 20 research papers are published in international journals including Journal of Royal Society of Health Promotion, England and Journal of Child Health Care of Sage Publication. He has presented papers in 06 international conferences in Bangkok, Singapore, Colombo and Dhaka and more than 100 papers in national conferences/ symposia/ workshops/ courses. He is working with high risk groups for HIV/AIDS like men having sex with men, drug addicts and commercial sex workers. He is also helping children suffering from eye problems with Kids with Vision, USA. He is life member of various public health organizations. He has authored eight books on public health issues. He is also working in the field of nuclear disarmament in the country under the banner of Indian Institute of Peace, Disarmament and Environmental Protection (IIPDEP), Nagpur, India and International Physicians for Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW), a Nobel Peace Prize Winner organization. He has been Coordinator/Principal Investigator/ Co-investigator/Supervisor of various prestigious projects of different agencies like UNICEF, Bill Clinton Foundation, Kids with Vision, New York, World Learning of USA, Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd. (NPCIL), Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR), Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi and Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India. He is a Co-patron of Medics, an umbrella organization of medical doctors and university students working for the poorest of the poor sections of the society in Aligarh and across India.
The present Cross-sectional study was carried out from January, 2014to December, 2014 with the following objectives: 1. To find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity in medical students 2. To determine the correlates of overweight and obesity Participants were medical students posted in the Department of Community Medicine during 3rd to 5th semesters under Rural Health Posting. Total number of participants was 240 comprising of 150 male and 90 female students. A pretested questionnaire was given to them and complete personal details, dietary habits were noted down followed by examination. Body Mass Index (BMI) was used to categorize the students into underweight, normal, overweight and obese groups. A BMI of <18.5 Kg/ m2 was taken as cut off point for under weight. Overweight and Obese were taken at the level of 23 Kg/ m2 and 25 Kg/m2 and above respectively. Among 150 male students, 30 (20.0%) were overweight while 9 (6.0%) were found to be obese and 6 (4.0%) were underweight. Among 90 girls, 21 (23.3%) were overweight, 10 (11.1%) obese and (7.7%) were found to be underweight. High calorie intake was noticed in 45 (30.0%) male students and lack of physical activity was observed in 25 (16.7%) male students. Among female students, high calorie intake and lack of physical activity was found in 31 (34.4%) and 20 (22.2%) students respectively. There is urgent need for prevention of obesity and its risk factors among college students. These findings have enormous significance for developing societies emerging from poverty and continuing to bear the double burden of both form of malnutrition in their populations.
Centre for Evidence-Based Intervention, UK
Ani Movsisyan is a doctoral student at the Department of Social Policy and Intervention, University of Oxford. Ani also works as a Research Officer on the newly launched project on the GRADE extension for complex interventions at the Centre for Evidence-Based Intervention. Ani earned an MPH from the School of Public Health at the American University of Armenia in 2013, and an MSc in Evidence-Based Social Intervention in 2014 at the University of Oxford.
Introduction: Interventions commonly used in social disciplines that aim to prevent health disparities and enhance population quality of life, such as community-based nutrition and lifestyle interventions, are most frequently complex. These interventions typically operate via a sequence of changes in psychosocial, behavioural, and/or structural processes, targeting multiple outcomes while interacting with local contexts and the mode of intervention delivery. In this light, several researchers argue that evidence synthesis of these complex interventions need to go beyond traditional meta-analysis that yield overall effect estimates. Specifically, reviews of complex interventions should assemble evidence of different types to explore variation in effects across populations, contexts and intervention implementation. This approach may be better suited to tackle health disparities and facilitate policy-relevant evidence synthesis. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach is the most widely adopted system worldwide for rating the quality of evidence and making healthcare recommendations. This paper outlines the specific challenges of applying GRADE to synthesise and assess the quality of evidence of complex interventions, and describes an ongoing project to extend, i.e. adapt GRADE for these interventions. Methods: We retrieved forty systematic reviews from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (only those published from 2013 to May 2014 in CDPLPG, CCDAN and CPH), and we analysed their application of GRADE and the quality of evidence ratings. We then contacted the review authors to explore the challenges they encountered when applying GRADE to complex interventions. Results: Specific challenges were identified in applying GRADE to complex interventions, namely assessments of heterogeneity, indirectness, performance bias and use of non-randomised studies in complex interventions. Authors perceived these challenges to contribute to frequent downgrading of the “best evidence possible” for these interventions. Meanwhile, GRADE was found to lack an analytic approach to integrate additional “parallel” evidence on intervention implementation and context. Conclusions: An extension to the GRADE approach is needed to address identified challenges and enhance its value for evidence syntheses of complex interventions. To extend GRADE for complex interventions, we will use formal consensus methods. This will include an online expert panel to elicit the criteria for the new methodology, followed by a consensus meeting to finalise the criteria and build consensus on the GRADE guidance for complex interventions. We invite interested researchers to participate in this project and help us achieve the best-informed consensus on this guidance.
Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences School of Health, Iran
Time : 12:35-13:00
Fatemeh Abdollahi has completed his PhD from University putra Malaysia School of Medicine and Health Sciences. She is the faculty member and researcher in Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. She has published more than 20 papers in index journals on the maternal and child health.
Nutrition has an important role in restore women’ health during postnatal period. Much of the woman's behavior during theis period including nutritional practice is strongly influenced by her cultural background. This study was conducted to determine the traditional nutritional practices (TNP) among the postnatal women in Gonbad Kavous city, northern Iran.. In a descriptive study, the data was collected from 305 women between Aug to Oct 2014. Women attending primary health centers in rural and urban areas were recruited using randomized sampling method. A questionnaire on socio-demographic and TNP during postnatal period was administrated to the sample. Yes and no answers were summed up to calculate the total score ranging from 0 to 8. Data was analyzed using descriptive analysis and chi-square test. The total number of traditional practices ranged from 2 to 8 with the mean being 6.46 ± 1.42. Majority of the women have eaten plenty of hot drinker (95.1%), have avoided eating spicy food (87.2%), have eaten plenty of sweaty fatty food (85.6%), have avoided eating some of smelly food such as onion and garlic (84.3%),have eaten yellow oil (Sari Yagh) (83.6%), have eaten red sugar (Ghezel Shekar) (76.1%), have eaten Bulmagh (Oil+ Suger+Rice powder) (73.1%) and have avoided eating red meat (61.3%). There was no significant difference between TNP and socio-demographic characteristics. TNP was quite high among postnatal women in this study. As information on safety of these practices is limited, health care practitioner should be aware of such practices and asked mothers about it.
Suez Canal University, Egypt
Time : 12:10-12:35
Background: The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and recurrent attempts for losing weight are very common. Diet cycling predisposes to health hazards including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed at evaluating the effect of diet cycling on the course of NAFLD. Materials and methods Male albino Sprague-Dawly rats were used in the study, 24 rats were kept on standard pellet animal diet to serve as control group and 24 rats were fed high fat diet (HFD) for sixteen weeks. Cycling diet group were fed HFD for eight weeks to induce NAFLD, and then shifted to normal caloric diet for four weeks, and then rebound weight gain is allowed by subjecting rats to another four weeks for HFD. Every time interval 8 rats were sacrificed and evaluated for body mass index, liver index, lipid profile, liver enzymes, HOMA-IR index, free fatty acids, TNF-α, IL-6, TGF-β. Oxidative stress enzymes were also measured. Liver histopathology and α-SMA immunoreactivity were evaluated. Results Cycling diet group showed significant increase in inflammatory markers most notably TNF-α with concomitant significant decrease in glutathione reductase levels. Significant increase in BMI, Liver index and other parameters was obvious. More fatty infiltration was noted in cycling group with more inflammatory infiltration. Conclusion Cycling diet had a negative influence on NAFLD and interfered with normal liver function. Cycling diet caused more fatty infiltration and more inflammation than the continuous HFD. Continuous HFD and cycling diet shared the same fibrosis stage. These results suggest that rebound weight gain affect the course of NAFD negatively.